II Main body
- Cause 1
- Cause 2
- Effect 1
- Effect 2
There are some common cause and effect structure words.
- X is used to indicate a cause, while Y is used to indicate the effect
- The first cause of (Y) is (X)
- The next reason is (X)
- Because of (X), (Y)
- As a result of (X), (Y)
- As a consequence of (X), (Y)
- because/since/as (X)
- to result from (X)
- (X) results in (Y)
- to be the result of (X)
- (Y) is due to (X)
- Owing to (X), (Y)
- (Y) is because of (X)
- (Y) is the effect of (X)
- (Y) is the consequence of (X)
- Worsening pollution levels in cities are due to the increased use of cars.
- Because of the increased use of cars, pollution levels in cities are worsening.
- As a result of the increased use of cars, pollution levels in cities are worsening.
- The effect of the increased use of cars is a worsening of pollution levels in cities.
- The first effect of (X) is (Y)
- Another result of (X) is (Y)
- As a result, (Y)
- As a consequence, (Y)
- Consequently (Y)
- Therefore, (Y)
- Thus (Y)
- Hence (Y)
- (X) results in (Y)
- (X) causes (Y)
- (X) has an effect on (Y)
- (X) affects (Y)
- (X) is one of the causes of (Y)
- (X) is the reason for (Y)
- (X) has a positive/negative influenced impact....
- has negative/unwanted effect on .....
- Cars are used increasingly for urban transport. As a consequence, pollution levels in cities are worsening.
- Increased use of cars for urban transport adversely affects pollution levels in cities.
- Increased use of cars for urban transport is one of the causes of worsening pollution levels in cities.
The problem / issue / question of… has always aroused heated / sharp disputes /debates / discussions / controversy. People express their concerns what causes this issue and which consequences can arise from it. This essay will suggest the principal reasons and effects of the problem.
Cause 1. The first cause of............ . ( extend your idea)....... For example, ( give an example) .......... ............................. As a result,......... ( close your idea of the first cause).
Cause 2. Another aspect of the problem.......... extend your idea)....... For instance, ( give an example) ....... .It’s clear.............a key contributor to ( close your idea of the second cause).
These factors have led to some significant effects, both to ......... ( present 2 effects/results of the problem you are going to describe next ).
Effect 1. The most important consequence of it ............. ( extend your idea).
Effect 2. Another result of ....... ... This matter/problem ........ can be attributed to/is resulted from ..... ( extend your idea).
In conclusion,..........is solely attributed to.........Neglecting these factors, people have a great chance not only ( restate your causes and effects) but also experience dramatic......... consequences.
The problem of obesity has always aroused sharp disputes. In some countries people are getting overweight and values of health and well-being are decreasing. People express their concerns what causes this issue and which consequences can arise from it. This essay will suggest the principal reasons and effects of the problem.
Cause 1. The first cause of obesity is a nourishment factor. Due to the technological progress preparation of meal has become much easier than it used to be. The advancements in food preparation methods have led to the growth of fast food industries which are gaining a great popularity all over the world. For example, McDonalds is the number 1 fast food company by sales, with more than 31,000 restaurants serving burgers and fries in almost 120 countries. As a result, by consuming junk food which contains a lot of fat and other unhealthy ingredients, people have more risk factors to gain weight and get overweight.
Cause 2. Another aspect of the problem is the lack of sufficient daily physical activity. It is considered that keeping active can help people stay at a healthy weight or lose weight. Despite all the health benefits of physical activity, people worldwide are doing less of it-at work, at home, and as they travel from place to place. It’s clear that this decline in physical activity is a key contributor to the global obesity epidemic and in turn, to rising rates of chronic disease everywhere.
Transition sentence/paragraph; These factors have led to some significant effects, both to physical and psychological well‐being in relation to obesity.
Effect 1. The most important consequence of it is an essential health risk. Obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can have a negative effect on many systems in people’s body. Persons who are overweight or obese have a much greater risk of developing serious conditions, including heart disease, diabetes and even cancer. Effect 2. Moreover, the results of physical inactivity and poor diet are leading not only to the bodily but also to the mental health. Psychological consequences of being overweight or obese can include lowered self-esteem and anxiety, and more serious disorders such as depression and eating disorders.
In conclusion, obesity is solely attributed to poor individual lifestyle choices – such as diet and exercise. Neglecting these factors, people have a great chance not only accumulate excess fat on the body but also experience dramatic health consequences.
Полезный материал на все разделы TOEFL
В данном разделе представлен полезный материал по всем разделам экзамена TOEFL: Reading, Listening, Speaking, Writing,