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Сразу после того, как Вы закончили писать вступление - Introduction ( e. General Statement + General overview/ trend), Вы приступаете к новому параграфу ( Feature Paragraph), где Вы должны описать основные особенности диаграммы. Этот "основной пункт / main body". Данная часть может быть представлена в 2-3 абзацах в зависимости от количества графиков, данных в задании и типа этих графиков.
Vocabulary to Start the Report Body:
- As is presented in the diagram(s)/ graph(s)/ pie chart(s)/ table...
- As (is) shown in the illustration...
- As can be seen in the...
- As the diagrams suggest..
- According to the...
- Categorically speaking...
- Getting back to the details...
- Now, turning to the details....
- The table data clearly shows that..
- . The diagram reveals that..
- The data suggest that..
- The graph gives figure..
- It is interesting to note that..
- It is apparently seen that..
- It is conspicuous that..
- It is explicitly observed that.
- . It is obvious..
- It is clear from the data..
- It is worth noticing that...
- It is crystal clear/ lucid that..
- It can be clearly observed that..
- It could be plainly viewed that...
- It could be noticed that..
- We can see that..
Vocabulary to show the changes:
|Название||Verb form||Noun form|
|Increase||rise / increase / go up / uplift / rocket(ed) / climb / upsurge / soar/ shot up/ improve/ jump/ leap/ move upward/ skyrocket/ soar/ surge.||a rise / an increase / an upward trend / a growth / a leap / a jump / an improvement/ a climb.|
|Decrease||fall / decrease / decline / plummet / plunge / drop / reduce / collapse / deterioriate/ dip / dive / go down / take a nosedive / slum / slide / go into free-fall.||a fall / a decrease / a reduction / a downward trends /a downward tendency / a decline/ a drop / a slide / a collapse / a downfall.|
|Steadiness||unchanged / level out / remain constant / remain steady / plateau / remain the same / remain stable / remain static||a steadiness/ a plateau / a stability/ a static|
|Gradual increase||______________||an upward trend / an upward tendency / a ceiling trend|
|Gradual decrease||______________||a downward trend / a downward tendency / a descending trend|
|Standability/Flat||evel(ed) off / remain(ed) constant / remain(ed) unchanged / remain(ed) stable / prevail(ed) consistency / plateaued / reach(ed) a plateau / stay(ed) uniform /immutable / level(ed) out/ stabilise/ remain(ed) the same.||No change, a flat, a plateau|
- The overall sale of the company increased by 20% at the end of the year.
- The expenditure of the office remained constant for the last 6 months but the profit rose by almost 25%.
- There was a 15% drop in the ratio of student enrollment in this University.
- The population of the country remained almost the same as it was 2 years ago.
- The population of these two cities increase significantly in the last two decades and it is expected that it will remain stable during the next 5 years.
Vocabulary to represent changes in graphs
|Type of change||Adverb form||Adjective form|
|Rapid change||dramatically / rapidly / sharply / quickly / hurriedly / speedily / swiftly / significantly/ considerably / substantioally / noticably.||dramatic / rapid / sharp / quick / hurried / speedy / swift / significant / considerable / substantial / noticable.|
|Moderate change||moderately / gradually / progressively / sequentially.||moderate / gradual / progressive / sequential.|
|Steady change||steadily/ ceaselessly.||steady/ ceaseless|
|Slight change||slightly / slowly / mildly / tediously.||slight / slow / mild / tedious.|
|Rapid ups and downs||wave / fluctuate / oscillate / vacillate / palpitate||waves / fluctuations / oscillations / vacillations / palpitations|
- The economic inflation of the country increased sharply by 20% in 2008.
- There was a sharp drop in the industrial production in the year 2009.
- The demand for new houses dramatically increased in 2002.
- The population of the country dramatically increased in the last decade.
- The price of the oil moderately increased in last quarter but as a consequence, the price of daily necessity rapidly went up.
- The price of the goods fluctuated during the first three months in 2017.
- The graph shows the oscillations of the price from 1998 to 2002.
- The passenger number in this station oscillates throughout the day and in early morning and evening, it remains busy.
- The changes of car production in Japan shows a palpitation for the second quarter of the year.
- The number of students in debate clubs fluctuated in different months of the year and rapid ups and downs could be observed in the last three months of this year.
1. Не старайтесь представить все данные, представленные на графике. Подберите 5-7 наиболее значимых и важных трендов/ изменений и покажите их сравнения и контрасты.
2. Вопрос в задании сосредоточен на написании отчета и суммировании данных, представленных в графиках. Вот почему Вам нужно показать сравнения, контрасты, самые высокие и самые низкие точки и самые яркие особенности в вашем ответе, а не каждый фрагмент данных, представленных на диаграмме(диаграммах).
Vocabulary - Using the appropriate "Prepositions":
- » It started at..., The sale started at $20..., It peaked at...
- »It reached at/to..., It reached the lowest point /nadir at...
- »It increased to 80 from 58. It decreased from10 to 3.
- »There was a drop of six units. It dropped by 3 units.
- »It declined by 15%. There was a 10% drop in the next three years.
Dates, Months & Years related vocabulary and grammar:
- From 1990 to 2000, Commencing from 1980, Between 1995 and 2005, After 2012.
- »By 1995, In 1998, In February, Over the period, During the period, During 2011.
- »In the first half of the year, For the first quarter, The last quarter of the year, During the first decade.
- »In the 80s, In the 1980s, During the next 6 months, In the mid-70s, Next 10 years, Previous year, Next year, Between 1980 - 1990.
- »Within a time span of ten years, within five years.
- »Next month, Next quarter, Next year, Previous month, Previous year.
- »Since, Then, From.
- Between ...(year/ month)... and ...(year/ month)...
- From ...(year/ month/ day/date)... to ...(year/ month/day/date)...
- In ...(year/ month)...
- On ...(day/ day of the week/ a date)...
- At ......, In ......, By ......
- During ... (year)...
- Over the period/ over the century/ later half of the year/ the year...
- Over the next/ past/ previous ........ days/ weeks/ months/ years/ decades...
Use preposition 'in' when you talk about years, months, decades, centuries, seasons.
- Years= in 1998, in 2015 etc.
- Months= in January, in December etc.
- Decades= in the nineties, in the seventies etc.
- Centuries= in the 19th century, in the 14th century, in the 1980s etc.
- Seasons= in summer, in winter, in autumn etc.
- »» Use preposition 'in' to talk about past or future.
- Past time= in 1980, in the past, in 1235, in the ice age, in the seventies, in the last century etc.
- Future time = in 2030, in the future, in the next century etc.
- »» Use preposition 'in' when you talk about a long period.
- in the ice age, in the industrial age, in iron age etc.
Percentage, Portion and Numbers:
10% increase, 25 percent decrease, increased by 15%, dropped by 10 per cent, fall at 50%, reached to 75%, tripled, doubled, one-fourth, three-quarters, half, double fold, treble, 5 times higher, 3 timers lower, declined to about 49%, stood exactly at 43%.
- 4% = A tiny fraction.
- 24% = Almost a quarter.
- 25% Exactly a quarter.
- 26% = Roughly one quarter.
- 32% Nearly one-third, nearly a third.
- 49% = Around a half, just under a half.
- 50% Exactly a half.
- 51% = Just over a half.
- 73% = Nearly three quarters.
- 77% = Approximately three quarter, more than three-quarter.
- 79% = Well over three quarters.
- 2% = A tiny portion, a very small proportion.
- 4% = An insignificant minority, an insignificant proportion.
- 16% = A small minority, a small portion.
- 70% = A large proportion.
- 72% = A significant majority, A significant proportion.89% = A very large proportion.
- 89% = A very large proportion.
Expressions to focus on an item in the graph:
Use the following expression to focus on an item in the graph.
- » With regards to
- » In the case of
- » As for
- » Turning to
- » When it comes to ..... it/ they .....
- » Where ... is/are concerned,......
- » Regarding
Greater or Higher?
We usually use 'greater' when we compare two numbers, and 'higher' while comparing two percentages or ratio. Reversely, 'smaller or fewer' could be used to compare two numbers and 'lower' to compare two percentages or ratios. The following table would make it clear -
|Subject||Scale ( Large)||Scale ( Small)|
Exercise: Insert the right word.
1. The number of male doctors in this city was_______than the number of female doctors.
2. The ________ of European programmers who attended the seminar was fewer than the ________ of Asian programmers.
3. The percentage of male doctors in this city was ________ than the percentage of female doctors.
4. During 2010, the inflow of illegal immigrants was ________ than that of 2012.
5. The birth rate in Japan in 2014 was__________han the birth rate in 2015.
Vocabulary to use figures
Is/ was/ were:
The percentage of foreign students was exactly ten in 2001 in this university and it rose three times in ten years.
Stand at/ Stood at:
The percentages of males and females who opined that they should be allowed to get married at 21 stood at 14 and 16 in 1990 but witnessed a noticeable decline in 2010.
Exactly & As high as:
The sale in March was exactly 400 and went up as high as 1100 in June.
In summer, the number of refrigerators sold (154) was far greater than the refrigerators sold (63) in winter.
- From January to March the death case rose three times which was only 23 between October and December.
- The temperature, which was 21 degrees C in March, climbed to 39 degrees C in mid-July.
In the first decade, the population remained steady, which made up 2.8 million approximately, but it doubled in the next 30 years.
The initial expenditure, which constituted 280 USD, climbed rapidly and reached the peak during 2014.
1. In June 2016. the number of Asian students enrolment in this university accounted for 45 which is estimated to be almost double in the next year.
2. The number of infected people, which accounts for nine, is markedly lower than the number of infected patients in the last month, which accounted for fourty.
Vocabulary to compare to what extent / to (/by) what degree something is greater/higher than the other.
- Overwhelmingly, Substantially, Significantly. Considerably.
- »Moderately, Markedly.
- »Hardly, Barely, Slightly, Fractionally, Marginally
Vocabulary to show the sequence:
» Subsequently, Respectively, Consecutively, Sequentially.
» Previous, Next, First, Second, Third, Finally, Former, Latter
If there are more than 2 values/ figures, you should always use'consecutively/ sequentially/ respectively'
"The market shares of HTC, Huawei, Samsung, Apple and Nokia in 2010 were 12%, 7%, 20%, 16% and 4% respectively in the global market."
Note:You do not need to use'consecutively/ sequentially/ respectively' if there are only two values to write.
Vocabulary to show transitions:
Vocabulary to describe different types of data/trends in a paragraph while showing a smooth and accurate transition is quite important. Following word(s)/ phrase(s) would help you do so in an excellent way...
- Following that
- Followed by
- Prior to
Vocabulary to describe Predictions:
- It is predicted/ estimated/ projected/ forecasted/ expected/ anticipated that......... will ...........
- It gives prediction/ estimation/ projection/ forecast of ..........
- It ...... will .........
- ....... Will have ....... by ....... (year/month/decade).......
How to use ‘number, total, amount, figure, period’
Using the word ‘Number’
Did you know that the word ‘ Number’ can be used as a verb as well as a noun?
- number – present verb
- numbered – past verb
- the number of – noun
- outnumber – verb
1. Cars produced in Japan number around 9 million units at present
2. Car production in Japan numbered around 9 million units last year
3. Coal exports in The USA outnumbered steel exports throughout the whole period.
4. In September 2017, the total number of EU migrants to the UK was just under 100,000.
5. The number of cars produced in Japan last year stood at around 9 million, outnumbering the USA (7 million).
For ‘people’ we also use the word ‘number of’ as ‘people’ is a countable noun.
- The number of + countable noun
‘The number of people living in London has risen to around 10 million since 1970’
When comparing things or people you can also use the word outnumber
- ‘The number of users on Facebook last year reached around 2 billion, outnumbering Twitter which stood at 1.5 billion users.’
Note: A good way of paraphrasing ‘the number of ‘ is to use ‘the proportion of..’ so I can also write:
- ‘The proportion of users on Facebook last year reached around 2 billion, outnumbering Twitter which stood at 1.5 billion users.’
Using the word ‘Total’
- totaled – past verb
- in total – noun phrase
- the total number /amount of – noun
1. The number of cars produced in Japan totaled around 9 million last year
2. The total number of cars produced in Japan last year stood at around 9 million, outnumbering the USA (7 million).
3. In total, 300,000 iPhones were manufactured in the last quarter of 2016
4. The total amount of electricity produced in the first half of 2016 was around 2 million kilowatts
Using the word ‘Amount’
The amount of + uncountable noun
1. The amount of electricity produced in Canada from Hydroelectric power has risen sharply since 2012
2. The amount of coal used in Australia doubled throughout the whole period.
2. Car production in The USA amounted to around 250,000 vehicles in the first half of 2015.
Sometimes you can use the word ‘amounted to’ (past tense) or ‘amounts to’ (present tense) This is a synonym for ‘in total’ .
- The cost of repairs amounts to $700 (present) / The cost of repairs amounted to $700 (past)
Using the word ‘Figure’
This is useful if you want to reduce repetition in your writing instead of constantly using ‘ the number of’ or ‘the proportion of’
- uncountable nouns: the figure for unemployment.
- countable nouns: the figure for people
- countries: the figure for the USA.
- percentages: the figure for…… rose by 10%.
1. The figure for people entering University reached a peak by 2014.
2.The figure for CO2 emissions in The UK dipped slightly by the end of the 30 year period.
3.The population figures for India rose by 12% over the two decades.
4.The figure for unemployment dropped to 5% in 2015.
Using the word ‘Period’
This is a good way to paraphrase a date range especially in the overview where it is best to avoid numbers or details , so rather than writing for instance, ‘from 2000 to 2010’ you can write:
- ‘in a ten year period’
- ‘throughout the ten year period’
- ‘throughout the whole period.’
In a graph with a time period, If you want to talk about the first year you can write ‘at the start of the period’ and for the last year you can write ‘at the end of the period’
- EU migrants numbered around 90,000 in December 2012 and rose steadily until June 2016.
- The number of EU migrants rose steadily from December 2012 to June 2016.
- The figure for non EU migrants amounted to slightly over 200,000 by September 2017.
- Non EU migrants outnumbered EU migrants throughout the whole 10 year period.
- The proportion of non EU migrants in December 2007 amounted to 200,000.
- The proportion of EU citizens who arrived in the UK 12 months after Brexit amounted to approximately 240,000.
- The number of Non EU citizens that arrived in the UK a year prior to Brexit, outnumbered those for the period 12 months after Brexit.
- EU citizens who left the UK in the 12 months following the vote numbered 123,000.
- The figures for people leaving the UK before and after Brexit were almost equal.
- Overall, more people arrived in the UK prior to Brexit compared to the year after the vote, according to the figures.
Материал для подготовки к IELTS
IELTS Academic Writing Masterclass course
The course is structured in the following way:
- You are given a video lesson with step to step processes and instructions, including structures, grammar vocabulary and helpful tips.
- Then you are presented practical tasks as your assignment. That is the most important part of the course, You are completing the task Following the instructions in the videos to write your high scoring report or essay.
- Then you send it for evaluation and feedback.
- You will be shown where you are doing well and what needs improving.
IELTS Academic Writing Course presentation