City and country life. Лексика. Part 1.
showing the influence of many different countries and cultures
EX. London has always been a cosmopolitan city.
a big city, especially considered as somewhere that is very busy and exciting
A metropolis is the largest, busiest, and most important city in a country or region.
an area near the centre of a large city where a lot of poverty and other social problems exist
EX...helping kids deal with the fear of living in the inner city
to breed crime
to produce crime
EX. Society has come to a consensus that urban sprawl can breed crime and something must be done about it.
a sudden, large increase in the size of a population
EX. T he world is facing a problem of population explosion.
facilities, resources; any feature that provides comfort, convenience, or pleasure (restaurants etc)
EX. Some houses still lack basic amenities such as bathrooms.
the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools.
EX. The country's infrastructure is crumbling because of inadequate investment.
cost of living
the average cost of food, clothing, and other necessary or usual goods and services paid by a person, family, etc., or considered as a standard by the members of a group.
EX. The cost of living has risen sharply.
EX. Traditional beliefs still flourish alongside a modern urban lifestyle.
Central Business District
the main business and commercial area of a town or city
EX. Every city has its central business district.
EX. During peak periods, reservations are difficult to make at some of the hotels.
the spreading of urban developments (as houses and shopping centers) on undeveloped land near a city
EX. We're doing all we can to inhibit urban sprawl and maintain the city's identity.
a person who travels some distance to work on a regular basis.
EX. They have a state-of-the-art underground system which could whisk commuters from the suburbs straight into the heart of the city.
City and country life. Лексика. Part 2.
a person who lives in the city
EX. City dwellers have a higher death rate than country people do.
a place where different peoples, styles, theories, etc. are mixed together
EX. New York has always been a great melting pot.
an area where a structure is being constructed or repaired
EX. Empty building sites have been reclaimed and replanted
an area of a town restricted to pedestrians.
EX. I think they should make the whole area a pedestrian precinct.
block of flats
a large building that is divided into apartments
EX. They live in a block of flats on a bleak council estate.
a residential area in which the houses have all been planned and built at the same time
EX. They're throwing up new housing estates all over the place.
EX. One of the issues in rural areas is commute time
capable of producing crops
EX. In order to turn the deserts into fertile and productive land, engineers built an 800-mile canal.
land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops
EX. For local governments building on arable land is often a money-spinner.
cultivated plants that are grown on a large scale commercially, especially a cereal, fruit, or vegetable.
EX. The unusually hot sun has fried up the crops.
a cereal which is the most important kind grown in temperate countries, the grain of which is ground to make flour for bread, pasta, pastry, etc
EX. The farmer grows a lot of wheat.
cereal plant with a loose, branched cluster of florets, cultivated in cool climates and widely used for animal feed
EX. Companies currently are limited to making claims that oatmeal or oat bran foods are low-fat or high-fiber.
a hardy cereal with coarse bristles extending from the ears, cultivated especially for use in brewing and stockfeed
EX. The main crops were oats and barley.
City and country life. Лексика. Part 3.
the possibility or likelihood of some future event occurring
EX. I see no prospect of things improving here.
substantially reduce the population of (an area).
EX. The village is suffering from depopulation.
to put money into something hoping it will be profitable
EX. This country needs investment in education.
very large cities which have absorbed other towns
EX. Wealth continues to be generated in the conurbations.
an area of a country where little of interest happens
EX. I find this town too much of a backwater.
the long-term trend for people to migrate from the countryside to cities, leaving the rural areas with few people
EX. Many hill farmers are already struggling and rural depopulation from loss of jobs is already taking place.
lack or shortage of something
EX. The scarcity of food forced prices up.
remote or far away
EX. Email enables far-flung friends to keep in touch.
an understanding of environmental issues
EX. Environmental awareness has increased over the years.
the process of using different fields each year to keep the soil healthy
EX. What crop rotation will suit the farm?
the management and care of farm animals by human beings, in which genetic qualities and behavior, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed
EX. Animal husbandry on the grassland is developing rapidly.
= farmers managing very small farms, usually with their families
EX. Many hill farmers are smallholders with part-time jobs elsewhere.
adjective meaning ‘producing just enough to live on’
EX. Most of the population lives at subsistence level.
being extremely poor in the countryside
EX. Most of the loss is attributed to population growth and rural poverty.