Summary Completion - IELTS Reading

Usually, you find this type of question in Section 3 of IELTS Reading test, but it may appear in Section 2 also. This question is in the form of a paragraph which is either the summary of whole passage or the summary of part of the passage. 

 It is written in paraphrased form with usage of synonyms. So, it takes time for you to understand the question properly.



There are two types of questions of summary completion type:
1. Test with the options (usually synonyms) given below the question. In this type, it becomes more complicated to find answers since here, after you find a word from the passage, you have to think of synonym of that word in order to find its answer.
2. Test with no options. In this type, there will be word instruction given which you must follow to find your answer from the passage.

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8 steps that you should follow to answer this type of questions.

  1. Read the instructions
  2. Read the title (if there is one)
  3. Highlight Keywords
  4. Think of synonyms
  5. Predict the type of answer
  6. Scan the text for keywords and synonyms
  7. Read it carefully to find the answer (match it to a word in the word list if necessary)
  8. Check the grammar


Air Rage

The first recorded case of an airline passenger turning seriously violent during a flight, a phenomenon now widely known as “air rage”, happened in 1947 on a flight from Havana to Miami. A drunk man assaulted another passenger and bit a flight attendant. However, the man escaped punishment because it was not then clear under whose legal control a crime committed on plane was, the country where the plane was registered or the country where the crime was committed. In 1963, at the Tokyo convention, it was decided that the laws of the country where the plane is registered take precedence.
The frequency of air rage has expanded out of proportion to the growth of air travel. Until recently few statistic were gathered about air rage, but those that have been indicate that passengers are increasingly likely to cause trouble or engage in violent acts. For example, in 1998 there were 266 air rage incidents out of approximately four million passengers, a 400% increase from 1995. In the same period American Airlines showed a 200% rise. Air travel is predicted to rise by 5% internationally by 2010 leading to increased airport congestion. This, coupled with the flying public’s increased aggression, means that air rage may become a major issue in coming years. 
Aside from discomfort and disruption, air rage poses some very real dangers to flying. The most extreme of these is when out of control passengers enter the cockpit. This has actually happened on a number of occasions, the worst of which have resulted in the death and injury of pilots or the intruder taking control of the plane, almost resulting in crashes. In addition, berserk passengers sometimes attempt to open the emergency doors while in flight, putting the whole aircraft in danger. These are extreme examples and cases of air rage more commonly result in physical assaults on fellow passengers and crew such as throwing objects, punching, stabbing or scalding with hot coffee.

Look at the words below and decide which word will fit in the reading gap fill summary.

The first time that an (1) _____________of air rage was recorded was in the 1940’s, but the passenger was never actually charged for an offence because there were no clear rules in place to specify where to prosecute. It was later(2)____________that it would be the country where the plane is registered. Air rage has (3)_______________________significantly since this time, growing by a staggering 400% from 1995 to 1998. Air rage is(4)____________to be a major problem in the future as air travel increases, as do levels of aggression. Angry (5)______________can put everyone in danger including the pilots, the crew and the other passengers, with some form of (6)__________________being the most common consequence.

Reading Gap Fill Answer Discussion

(1) Incident
You should have worked out the this is a synonym for 'case'. The other nouns in the box would not fit here.
(2) Established
'Establish' can mean to set up something up such as a system of rules. So this word fits here. You may have thought it was 'found', but this means to discover something. The new legislation wasn't 'discovered'.
(3) Increased
If you refer to the reading you can see that this is the trend referred to. 'Rose' does not fit grammatically.
(4) Predicted
The reading and the summary show that the future is being discussed, so this word fits.
(5) Passengers
It must be the plural as it is being used as a general noun. For the singular, an article would need to have been used.
(6) Assault
If you put 'injury' this is wrong as the reading does not say people are commonly injured, but it does refer to assaults. You can get assaulted without getting injured.
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IELTS Academic Writing Masterclass course

The course is structured in the following way:

  • You are given a video lesson with step to step processes and instructions, including structures, grammar vocabulary and helpful tips.
  • Then you are presented practical tasks as your assignment. That is the most important part of the course, You are completing the task Following the instructions in the videos to write your high scoring report or essay.
  • Then you send it for evaluation and feedback.
  • You will be shown where you are doing well and what needs improving.

IELTS Academic Writing Course presentation

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